IMWE MU MYANZURO Y’INTEKO RUSANGE Y’UMURYANGO W’ABIBUMBYE YEREKEYE RWANDA- BURUNDI (1959 – 1962). Igice cya I. (Par Léopold Munyakazi)

Voir aussi notre article:Kigeri V : Pourquoi la Tutelle belge ne lui a pas permis d’exercer ses fonctions, comme monarque constitutionnel ?

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IMWE MU MYANZURO Y’INTEKO RUSANGE Y’UMURYANGO W’ABIBUMBYE YEREKEYE RWANDA- BURUNDI (1959 – 1962)

Mu biganiro bibiri by’Ijwi ry’Ubumanzi byasoje umwaka wa 2010, abatumiwe bibanze cyane ku myanzuro y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye  itarubahirijwe ku byerekeye ikibazo cy’Umwami Kigeri V, banasobanura ko ari na yo nkomoko y’ibibazo bya poritiki byakomeje kwizimba ku Rwanda, cyane cyane ko Umwami Kigeri V Ndahindurwa atemerewe gukomeza imirimo ye nk’umwami w’uRwanda.

Nasanze byaba byiza ko abantu batashoboye kwisomera iyo myanzuro mu ndimi z’amahanga babona uko bamenya neza ibiyikubiye mo. Ni yo mpamvu nihaye umukoro wo guhindura imwe muri yo mu kinyarwanda, ururimi Abanyarwanda bose bumva neza.

Imyanzuro munani nahinduye iri mu matsinda atatu. Iyo mu rya mbere yerekeye ibihugu n’impugu bikiri mu bukoroni cyangwa mu buragizo bigomba kugezwa ku bwicunge bw’imbere, hanyuma ku bwigenge busesuye. Birumvikana ko n’uRwanda rwari muri icyo gikundi mbere ya za 1960. Iyo mu itsinda rya kabiri yerekeranye n’ahazaza ha Teritwari y’indagizo ya Rwanda – Burundi. Iyo mu rya gatatu yibanda ku kibazo bwite cy’Umwami w’uRwanda, Kigeri V Ndahindurwa.

 Ubungubu ndomeka kuri uyu mwandiko umwanzuro 1413 (XIV) na 1514 (XV) yerekena ko Umuryango w’Abibumbye washishikajwe n’ubwigenge bw’ibihugu byari mu bukoroni no mu buragizo, n’ubwo usa n’uwahugukiye icyokibazo utinze.

 Kugira ngo tuzagere ku nsanganyamatsiko y’ibiganiro byo ku Ijwi ry’Ubumanzi tuzi neza amavo n’amavuko y’ingorane Umwami Kigeri V Ndahindurwa yaje kugira ndatangira no kugaragaza ubuhamya abantu banyuranye bagiye batanga kuri uwo Mwami. Ndabanziriza ku buhamya  Guverineri wa Rwanda – Burundi, Bwana Yohani Pawuro HARROY, yatangaje mu gitabo cye yise ngoRWANDA. SOUVENIRS D’UN COMPAGNON DE LA MARCHE DU RWANDA VERS LA DEMOCRATIE ET L’INDEPENDANCE”, Hyez/Bruxelles, 1984, 512 p. + carte:

KIGERI V

“Nifuzaga kugira icyo mbwira umusomyi ku buryo burambuye kuri Yohani Batisita Ndahindurwa waje gutoranywa mu bavandimwe na benese  icyenda ba Mutara kugira ngo abe Kigeri V.

“Ku bwanjye ndabona uyu mwirondoro ufite akamaro kuko ushobora gusubiza ikibazo kigira kiti “Kuki wari  wanyuzwe n’iryo hitamo igihe ryabaga, kandi nyuma uwo Mwami yararwanyije cyane poritiki yanyu ku buryo wishimiye ubwawe koatsindwa  mu matora yo ku itariki ya 25 Nzeri 1961yanavanye ho  ubutegetsi bwa cyami ikazana repuburika?

“Igisubizo cy’igice cya mbere cy’icyo kibazo gishobora gutangwa mu magambo make ngo “ Kugeza muri Nyakanga 1959, Ndahindurwa yari umuntu urangwa n’ubwitange n’ugushaka kwiza, yego utari indatwa mu by’ubwenge, ugaragaza ingufu nke mu mwitwarire ye, ariko ufite ingeso nziza kandi urangiza neza imirimo ye y’ “umukarani  indijeni” mu Biro bya teritwari ya Asitirida ku buryo bunyura abamukuriye.

“Iminsi ya mbere y’ingoma ye yaduhaye ibyiringiro byose kubera ukuntu yitabiriye abishyize mo ugushaka kwiza poritiki y’ubumwe bw’igihugu  twari twamugiriye mo inama.  Nyamara icyo cyizere yuko azafatana ubugenge kandi akomeje umunzani hagati y’ibyerekezo by’Abatutsi n’iby’Abahutu cyayoyotse vuba ku buryo bubabaje, kuko intagondwa z’Abatutsi zitsimbaraye ku bya kera, kandi  zibumbiye muri Runari zashoboye kumuganza burundu ku buryo, kubera ingufu nke no kudashirikanya, yari yarahindutse rwose ikigoresho nyamujya iyo bijya mu maboko yabo. Amahirwe  yacu n’Abahutu yari yaduciye mu ntoki.

“Mpereye ku yandi makuru, cyane cyane ku bihuha byari byarakwiriye muri iyo minsi yuko Ndahindurwa ari we muragwa wari watoranyijwe na Mutara1 , kandi ngikomeje mu murongo w’ibyo navuze mbere, nari naranditse impanuro nyayo ku itariki ya gatatu Kanama ngira nti

“Amaherezo dushobora kwemera ko Yohani Batisita Ndahindurwa ari we koko wari umukandida wa Aregisi Kagame n’uw’Umugabekazi, ndetse akaba yarashyigikiwe na bamwe mu byegera bya Rudahigwa, kubera ahari ko bamubonaga nk’umuntu ushobora kuvugirwa mo bihagije.

“Reka mbanze mbereke ishusho ibengerana y’imyaka yabanjirije itariki ya 28 Nyakanga 1959.

“Kugira ngo nshimangire neza intangiriro zitanga icyizere cyinshi, ku bwacu, z’imyitwarire ya Kigeri, yagiye inyibutsa kenshi, ariko ku buryo bushimitse cyane, iyo Mutara yari yarangaragarije. N’ubwo wenda byaba mo uburondogozi, ngiye kwandukura amabango maremare y’inyandiko umutware wa teritwari ya Asitirida yanshyikirije ku itariki ya 31 Nyakanga 1959 nayimusabye, kubera yuko Ndahindurwa ari ho yakoraga guhera mu kwezi kwa Nzeri 1956.

“Umwe mu mirimo w’ubuyobozi umuragwa w’ubwami yashinzwe – ni nk’amahurirane – wabaye uwo kugenzura, mu mwaka wa 1956, amatora y’abajyanama ba susheferi. Nyuma y’aho, yakoze ingendo nyinshi kandi ndende mu misozi, agenzura za susheferi, inkiko, ibikorwa by’ubuhinzi, n’ibaruramari rya sheferi. Yakoze anketi zo mu rwego rw’ubucamanza n’urwa poritiki. Kenshi cyane yakoze umurimo w’ubusemuzi.

“Dore noneho nandukure rwose raporo ya musitanteri Hubert BOVY, mu ngingo z’ingenzi n’utundi dukuru numva ko umusomyi akwiriye kumenya:

-          Bwana Ndahindurwa arangwa n’ubushake bwiza bwuzuye.

-          Ni umuntu mwiza, ukurikije insobanuro y’ibanze y’iryo jambo.

-          Yagaragaje ko afite igitinyiro mu ngeri zose z’abaturage.

-          Ni umuntu wicisha bugufi. Uyu mugenzo ufite agaciro kadasanzwe mu Rwanda ubwirasi no kwiyemera bisa n’ingeso kavukanwa.

-          Incuro nyinshi yaradutangaje agaragaza ubushobozi afite bwo kuyobora shantiye runaka, bwo gushishikariza ibikorwa by’ubuhinzi, ntazuyaze gukoresha amaboko ye. Iki ni ikintu kidasanzwe rwose.

-          Mu ngendo, yemeranaga inseko nziza ubujyahabi (akenshi bukabije cyane nko kuryama ku byatsi).

-          [...]Yagenderaga kure amatiku n’amariganya ya poritiki, ntabyivange mo ku buryo bugaragara. Kuba yari igikomangoma agashobora kuguma imyaka itatu yose muri teritwari imwe, atigaruriwe n’itsinda iri n’iri ry’abanyaporitiki, ni ikimenyetso kigaragaza yuko, n’ubwo ari umuntu abandi bishyikira ho, afite  inarinjye ye bwite.

-          Kenshi cyane yaduhataga ibibazo ku gihugu cy’uBubirigi.

-          Yari afitanye ubucuti nyabwo n’abakozi ba teritwari b’abazungu  ndetse n’abandi batari mu bya Reta. Ntiyashakaga ubucuti bw’ibikomerezwa, ahubwo yasaga n’uwishakira ubugwaneza.

-          Nk’umugatorika, yubahirizaga idini rye.”

(pp. 278 – 280).

Ibindi ubutaha.

Munyakazi

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Guverineri Yohani Pawuro HARROY arakomeza agira ati

“Ndarangiriza ku bikorwa bimwe na bimwe bimeze nk’amapica agaragaza ubuzima bwe muri iyi myaka ibiri ishize(N.B. Ni raporo ya BOVY igikomeje).

-          “Umunsi umwe nari maze gushyika aho umwungiriza wanjye Bwana BIER    yari ari mu ishyamba ryo ku Rwasenkoko, nuko mbona Bwana Ndahindurwa ahagaze ku gisenge cy’inzu y’inkambi, ari hagati y’abakozi akoresha intoki ze. Nguko uko yumvaga umurimo w’umugenzuzi.

-          “Mu kwezi gushize, agoronome wacu DEFRENNE yatumiye abasushefu bo mu Bufundu mu nama yerekeye iby’ubuhinzi, nuko agira atya abona Ndahindurwa aturutse ku Gikongoro ku maguru, yiyemeje gukora urugendo rw’amasaha atanu muri iyo misozi. Iyo Bwana DUFRENNE ataza kwibwiriza, Ndahindurwa aba yarasubiye yo na none ku maguru.

-          “Mu Rwanda, umukene n’umunyantege nke arasuzugurwa. Imyifatire ya Ndahindurwa irumvikanisha  neza  ukuntu abakene n’abamugaye baza kumutakambira ngo abasonere imisoro ya teritwari bamubona nk’umuntu w’umutima woroshya kandi ubafitiye urukundo.

-          “Umunsi umwe yagabanyije imirimo abakozi basiga amarangi, nuko na we tubona asingiriye uburoso afatanya na bo, kugira ngo umurimo utunganywe uko abyifuza. Igikorwa nk’iki ntigisanzwe mu Rwanda.

-          Ubwo yimukaga Asitirida ajya i Kami, imwe mu ncuti ze yamuhaye ibaruwa imugenewe gusa kugira ngo amuburire ku ngorane zo kuba wenyine, ku nkurikizi zo kurema agakungu n’igitsina gore, nb. Izo nama yazakiriye neza cyane, nuko ashimira cyane iyo ncuti ye ayumvisha ko ashimishwa cyane n’inama zivuye ku mutima kurusha izo gucacura gusa.

-          Mu mezi make ashize, imodoka ya Reta yimuye umukozi imuvana i Bujumbura imugeza imbere y’ikirabo. Uwo mukozi yasigaye aho n’umuryango we bahagaze iruhande ry’ikirundo cy’imitwaro, bagenzi be bamurebera gusa. Muri ako kamwanya Ndahindurwa yarahagobotse, amushakira abamufasha, nuko na we aterura igisanduku agikubita ku mutwe akijyana ku icumbi ry’uwo mukozi.

“Nyuma y’iki cyemezo cy’ubudakemwa mu mico n’imyifatire “umukarani indijeni” yahaye Ndahindurwa, reka nanjye nibutse ibyitegerezo byanjye bwite nanditse ku itariki ya 3 Kanama ngaragaza imyifatire y’Umwami mushya.

“Namaranye na Kigeri V igihe kirekire ku wa gatanu  no ku wa gatandatu yakurikiye ishyirwaho rye.

Imyitwarire ye yari inonosoye pe. Yakiraga neza inama zinyuranye namugiriye kandi ubona afite ubushake bwo kuzikurikiza: kugira ibikorwa agenera Abahutu, gutoranya neza abamushagara, kwitondera abigira abatoni kandi ari indyarya, guhita agira icyo akorera Abatwa, gushinga icyicaro cye i Kigari aho kuguma i Nyanza. Ndizera ko iyi migambi myiza azayigumana.

“N’ubwo hari Abanyarwanda batari bake bari bikomye Mgr PERRAUDIN ku mugaragaro – kandi na Mutara akaba yari yaranashatse uko yamwirukana mu gihugu – ikintu Umwami mushya yakoze mbere na mbere ni ukujya i Kabgayi gusaba umugisha Musenyeri ukuriye Kiriziya yo mu Rwanda.

[...] “Ku itariki ya 28 Nyakanga, imbere y’Inama Nkuru y’Igihugu, Kigeri yari yatanze itangazo rigufi cyane kandi risobanura byinshi: “Nzakora umurimo wanjye mu bwumvikane bwuzuye n’ubutegetsi bw’Ababirigi”. Yagejeje ku Banyarwanda ijambo ribifuriza ibyiza byinshi(“mu mahoro no mu bumwe”), hanyuma yoherereza UMWAMI teregaramu y’ubudahemuka.  Guhera mu masaha ya mbere, yagiranye ubwumvikane n’umujyanama we, musitanteri Mariseri POCHET.

“Hafashwe icyemezo cy’uko umwami mushya agenderera vuba teritwari zose z’uRwanda.  Hari abamuhatiraga abo agomba kujyana na bo, kandi benshi. Kigeri yangejeje ho icyifuzo cyo guherekezwa n’abantu babiri gusa, Kayihura n’Umuhutu w’imena Anasitazi Makuza. Yari yahise mo neza, uretse ko amaherezo uwo mupango utashobotse noneho hakemerwa igitekerezo cyanjye cy’uko nta wugomba guherekeza Kigeri, uretse umujyanama we n’umukarani we.

“Ku itariki ya 9 Ukwakira 1959, Kigeri ni bwo yahawe ububasha n’Ubutegetsi bushinzwe ubuyobozi, kandi anasinyira ko yiyemeje kuzaba umwami ugendera ku itegekonshinga, isezerano yari yaratanze mu magambo ku itariki ya 28 Nyakanga akiri ku mva ya Mutara.”

Harroy, J-P., igitabo navuze ubushize, pp. 280 – 282.

Igice cya 3 ari na cyo cya nyuma cyerekeranye n’ikibazo cy’Umwami Kigeri V.

Ni ah’ubutaba.

Munyakazi

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Ubuhamya inararibonye mu mateka y’uRwanda yo mu myaka ya za 1950 – 1960, Bwana Aroyizi Munyangaju, yatanze ku mwaduko w’Umwami Kigeri V warahiriye kugendera ku itegekonshinga kandi akimakaza demokarasi.

Dore, ntabatindiye , umwandiko we:

UMWAMI W’URWANDA WA MBERE UGENGWA N’ITEGEKONSHINGA

Mu gihe ndangije kwandika aka gatabo, hari ikintu gishya kije kongera uburemere ku munzani: itanga ry’Umwami Mutara III n’itangazwa ry’Umwami Kigeri V Ndahindurwa. Itabaruka ry’uwa mbere risobanura iherezo ry’ingoma, umwaduko w’uwa kabiri ugasobanura intangiriro y’indi. Mbese iryo hinduka ry’ingoma rizajyana n’ihinduka ry’imitegekere? Ngicyo  ikibazo cy’ingezi bibaza mu byiciro byose.

Ubuzima bwahise bw’Umwami mushya buramutanga ho ibyiringiro byinshi, umusuzumye ku giti cye bwite. Kugera aho azamuriwe mu cyubahiro cy’ubwami, Igikomangoma Ndahindurwa(Udatsimburwa, Udahungabanywa) yari yaramamaye nk’umuntu ufite igikundiro kidasanzwe, ariko ku by’agahebuzo muri rubanda, kubera ukwicishabugufi kwe gutangaje n’ukwiyoroshya bitagira urugero. Nyiricyubahiro mu banyacyubahiro, akicisha bugufi mu bagufi yakundaga kwita ho by’ibanze. Nta shiti ni we gikomangoma cyonyine nyakuri gishobora kugaragarizwa urukundo n’abantu bose.

Iyo myendezo irerekana neza yuko iyo hajya gukurikizwa inzira ya demokarasi, mu gihe nta muragwangoma ukomoka ku Mwami Mutara III nyirizina wari uhari, mwene se Ndahindurwa yari kubona ubwiganze busesuye bw’amajwi.  Ikibabaje ariko ni uko yashyizwe ku butegetsi n’ikintu kimeze nka kudeta, ikozwe na ba nyakubahwa Abarinzi b’Uruhererekane n’ab’Amabanga y’Ingoma yuje ubwiru, akoma ku iyobokamana kandi rya gipagani, yasisibiranyijwe n’itsinda riri ku mukondo w’ingoma rigitsimbaraye ku buhake kandi ritifuza iterambere.

Ubutegetsi bw’Uburagizo bw’Ababirigi, Inama  Nkuru y’Igihugu, abayobozi b’Abahutu baharanira demokarasi n’imibereho myiza, abatigaya ubuke b’Abatutsi biyemeje koko guharanira iterambere, na ko muri make abantu bose, hakurikijwe manda zabo, bari bafite ububasha bonyine bwo kugira icyo bavuga kuri icyo cyemezo cy’imena, bashyizwe imbere igikorwa cyarangiye. Bose uko bakabaye ntibazuyaje kwemera ibyabaye, mbere na mbere ari ukwanga ko haba ho intambara y’amagomerane mu gihugu, kandi cyane cyane kubera inarinjye bwite y’uwatowe.

Bityo rero, n’ubwo umuntu yababazwa n’uburyo butagira icyo bwitaye ho, buri mo imigenzo ya gipagani kandi bususa na revorisiyo koko bwakoreshejwe mu kugeza Igikomangoma Ndahindurwa ku butegetsi, bukaba bwaramugabanyirije icyubaho kandi bugatuma benshi bajijinganya ku bwemerwe bwe, birakwiye nyamara kwishimira itoranywa rye risa n’iryakomotse ku Mana.

Kugeza uyu munsi, Ndahindurwa ni umwe mu Batutsi mbarwa cyane batigeze barwanya ubwibohore bw’Abahutu muri rusange n’ubw’abayobozi babo kamere by’umwihariko. Aracyari muto. Nta shyaka na rimwe ryamwigaruriye. Agaragara nk’ufite imigambi itagira uko isa. Imyifatire ye itabogama ayiterwa wenda n’uko yimenyereje kwita ku magorwa ya rubanda rugufi kuko na we yayasangiye na bo mu gihe cy’ubuzima yabaye ho nka mwene se w’Umwami watereranywe, kuva akivuka kugeza igihe yimiye ingoma.

Igisigaye ni ukumenya niba azagira inarinjye ikomeye bihagije ntaganzwe n’ibishuko byuzuye urwango, byigomeka kandi bigamije inyungu bwite by’abagitsimbaraye ku buhake bakimushagaye bonyine muri kino gihe. Uko azarema ikipi y’abazamukikiza ni byo bizaha poritiki n’ingoma bye guhona cyangwa kwishyuka. Kugeza ubu ntarashyira ho iyo kipi y’abazamukikiza. Abari basanzwe mu ikipi y’uwo asimbuye , kimwe n’ibindi bikomerezwa byo mu gihugu, baraterura isi n’ijuru kugira ngo bashore Umwami mushya muri poritiki irwanya abayobozi b’Abahutu, irwanya Abatutsi bashaka iterambere, irwanya Misiyoni Gatorika, irwanya n’Ubutegetsi bw’uburagizo bw’Ababirigi, poritiki yaranze ibihe bya  nyuma by’irembera ry’ingoma irangiye.  Mbese mama azashobora kwiyama  mu bwenge ariko ku buryo buhamye iryo toteza rishobora kuzamwamurura ho abanywanyi be b’imena noneho agashora  cyangwa akagumisha mu buhanganiro izo “Ngufu Enye” zo mu gihugu cye ubushishozi n’ubuhanga by’ibanze byagombye kumubwiriza gufatanya na zo?

Nk’uko bigaragara, Umwami Kigeri V Ndahindurwa afite amahirwe y’imbonekerimwe yo kuzaba Umwami ukomeye, Umwami wa mbere ugengwa n’itegekonshinga, nk’uko yabirahiriye imbere ya Guverineri wa Rwanda – Burundi kugira ngo abone ubwemerwe bwe. Iyiba yashoboraga kumuba cyane cyane mu bikorwa kurusha mu magambo, hitawe ku cyifuzo gishengura imitima y’ubwiganze busesuye bw’imbaga y’Abanyarwanda bakiranye iyima rye ibyiringiro bingana n’amakenga! Mu gihe tugitegereje kumurebera ku bikorwa, kumuyoboka nta buhemu aramutse abohoye igipande cy’imbaga ye cyatsikamiwe, cyangwa se kumurwanya twivuye inyuma aramutse  yigaragaje  nk’Umututsi aho kuba Umwami usumba amoko, Kigeri V Ndahindurwa arasa nk’umuntu uje akenewe kandi uziye igihe. Wenda aje ku kibariro cye. Icyo asigaje ni ukugaragaza ko akwiriye icyizere bamwimbitse mo, cyangwa se ko azagitatira bikamubyarira imivumo y’ibyiciro by’abanyakazi bamukomera amashyi muri kino gihe aho anyuze hose.

 

Aroyizi Munyangaju

Inyongezo y’agatabo kitwa ngo “L’actualité politique au Ruanda”, 1959, 53p.

Byahinduwe mu kinyarwanda na Rewoporidi Munyakazi

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Imyanzuro: IMWE MU MYANZURO Y’INTEKO RUSANGE Y’UMURYANGO W’ABIBUMBYE YEREKEYE RWANDA- BURUNDI (1959 – 1962). Igice cya II. (Par Léopold Munyakazi)

 


 

 

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Une réponse à “IMWE MU MYANZURO Y’INTEKO RUSANGE Y’UMURYANGO W’ABIBUMBYE YEREKEYE RWANDA- BURUNDI (1959 – 1962). Igice cya I. (Par Léopold Munyakazi)”

  1. Theo Dit :

    Ndagirango nshimire Mwarimu Munyakazi kuri iyo contribution ikomeye mu ntangiriro z’umwaka. Tuzakomeza kugeza ku basomyi b’urubuga inyandiko uko Mwarimu azagenda azohereza imwe ku yindi. Ndizera ko umurimo uzarangira hari benshi basobanukiwe n’uko amateka yacu yayobejwe, n’uko imigambi myinshi yo kunywanisha abanyarwanda yagiye ipfuba kubera kubura ubushake, ariko cyane cyne kubera communauté internationale irangarana ibibazo, kugaza aho biturika bikabyara ingorane zikomeye irebera. Nanone ariko uruhare rw’abanyarwanda ubwabo ntirugomba kwibagirana mu bibazo by’ingutu bibugarije. Bavuga ko usenya urwe umutiza umuhoro, niko byagiye bigenda, kandi niko bikomeje kugenda no muri iki gihe. Basomyi b’urubuga rero ntimuzacikwe kuri izi nyandiko zizakurikirana zisobanura imvo n’imvano.

    Theo.

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